Huston Smith died recently; but, his “The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions” has been standard reference and study guide for nearly 50 years. Today more than ever, a respectful knowledge and appreciation of humanity’s religions is crucial to the flourishing, and even survival, of our planet. Come and explore with Fr. Michael on the Saturdays of Lent: March 11th through April 8th from 10:30 to 12 pm at the Merton Center, Rectory of Church of Notre Dame.
In the current debate between science and religion, Plato’s Symposium has a lot to offer. Not because the philosophers at the event talked about science in any modern sense (they didn’t), nor because the discussion was invested with a proper dose of academic gravitas (it wasn’t). On the contrary, it was a drinking party, and everyone was having a good time. In fact, that is what symposium actually means in the original Greek. And this has much to teach us. First of all, it reminds us that we should exhibit the good fellowship and enthusiasm of brothers and sisters (OK, they excluded women in those days) and of kindred explorers of the boundless marvels of the universe. Allied with this, it proposes that reality is a banquet (a frequent alternate translation of “symposium”)—unbelievably tasty and enormously filling. The image and implication of intoxication is a telling one since one can and should be inebriated and delighted by the splendor of the real, as opposed to sinking into the dour servitude of gouty dogmatism of whatever flavor.
If we adopt this stance, we discover that not just love but also truth is a “many-splendored thing.” That is a primary lesson we need to grasp before proceeding any further in the debate between science and religion. We need to stretch our minds and hearts and let them roam free outside of the narrow prisons and blinkered perspectives in which we tend to incarcerate them, and let ourselves embrace and be braced by the currents of reality around us. When I was in college, a little-known work by Jacques Maritain was my secular bible and vade mecum: The Degrees of Knowledge. To return to the metaphor, this volume spread out the full, sumptious repast of reality, from electrons to the empyrean, with dazzling epistemological virtuosity, illustrating in detail how each level of our experience of the real, from empirical science to mysticism, has its own rules of exploration. It taught how to savor everything on the table, and to escape the inevitable indigestion or starvation that would result from eating only dessert or appetizers.
So, as we enter the dining hall, let us begin by establishing our rules of etiquette, our epistemological table manners, so to speak. Those who prefer appetizers (science, let us say—no value judgment implied!) have every right to their tastes, and they may refrain from dessert, if they wish (religion, let us suppose). Others may leap right to the dessert, and skip the appetizers. Many will say, perhaps rightly, that both groups are missing out on something tasty; but, what they eat is their own decision. What we cannot allow is a discourse in which one group chastises the other as idiots or hypocrites because of their particular preference.De gustibus non disputandum. So, both science and religion beware!
What therefore might the intellectual gourmet’s assessment of these various courses, whether in the culinary or university sense? Modern civilization has discovered (despite its roots in Aristotle, who didn’t yet make all the necessary distinctions) the magnificence and the unimaginable fruitfulness of empirical science, and its mathematical models. The scientific method, based on observation, hypothesis, and experiment, has rightly brought untold benefits into our lives. It has its proper object—material and measurable reality—and its particular methods. Similarly, religion has brought almost unfathomable depth, excitement, perspective, guidance, and compassion into the world. It, too, has its own object (God and the spirit world, and all in relation to God) and its own methods (ultimately human spiritual experience), though often employing philosophical systems or artistic means to help express the inexpressible. Of course, since notoriously fallible and fickle human beings are the ones who actually practice science or religion, much that is nasty has been introduced in the name of both (nuclear bombs and inquisitions, for example). Yet that is not a defect of the food but of the diners and their appetites—not a fault of the field itself but of those who are walking in the field.
Still, if these various fields yield wondrous crops within their own spheres, their seeds will not sprout outside of them. Science, for example, never can nor ever should speak about God. It is completely outside its realm of competence. The existence and operations of God can never be either proved or disproved by science. The experience of God, however, or discourse about God, is certainly not outside the competence of human beings, with their multilayered reality. Thus, although science cannot speak about God, a scientist may do so, if she or he wishes, only simply not as a scientist, but as a person. For the same reasons, God neither can nor should be invoked within scientific discourse, as a cause or explanation of any sort, simply because God is not an object of empirical science, and can never be proved scientifically. It does not mean that God may not be a legitimate cause on another level of discourse (philosophical, theological, or mystical). But God should not be called in to bail out or short-circuit science in its own domain.
The problems arise, of course, when there is an apparent conflict of interests, when one seems to be treading on the other’s turf. In other words, the boundaries among these various categories of discourse, or rather, our perception and understanding of them, may often be somewhat sloppy and in need of challenge. Such difficulties have arisen quite spectacularly in history on a number of occasions (Galileo and Darwin, for example, which we can explore another time in more detail). In these instances, what seemed to have been the province of religion turned out to be the province of science. Or, to express it differently, these clashes provided an enormously exhilarating opportunity for those with open minds to re-examine their understanding of certain elements of their religious belief, and grow to a maturity of appreciation that was unthinkable before. Thus, the whole reassessment, over the past 200 years, of how to read the scriptures in Christianity—not as treatises in science or history but as bearers of spiritual insight and truth—was facilitated, and to a degree, even made possible, by the scientific revolution. To be sure, as Francis Collins rightly asserts in his Discover Interview in the February issue, St. Augustine reminded his readers 1,600 years ago that our understanding of the six days of Genesis should never be slavishly literal (in fact, Origen had pointed out the same more than a century before that), or taken to be a scientific or historical eyewitness account of how events unfolded. Rather are we dealing with a mythical and mystical treatise whose depth of truth is vastly more challenging and astonishing as a metaphor of our spiritual journey than just as an account, however glorious and poetic, of the origins of our material universe. Immense and innumerable currents of Jewish and Christian mystical writing bear this out. And, as the Dalai Lama has famously said in recent years, if other beliefs of religion were to be challenged by science, then, upon examination, we would have to humbly integrate the insights, certain that religion itself would only profit in the end.
Historically speaking, however, we know that proponents neither of religion nor of science often exhibited this tranquil breadth of spirit, this self-possessed openness to challenge and change, that circumstances genuinely required. Indeed, official positions and widespread popular understanding were often rife with fear and its concomitant dogmatism, and this remains so today in many quarters. Once again, however, this is the fault of the practitioners, and not of science or of religion itself.
Another possible area of conflict, which is considerably more contentious, is that of morality. I would propose that scientific research is intrinsically amoral; by its own rules, science would simply go out and do whatever it is capable of doing at any time. This is a limitation, but not a fault. Problems arise, however, because its object is often part of a much more complex reality. For example, not only do people do science, but people are often the object of science. What is more, they are not simply the subjects and objects of science, they are also the subjects and objects of psychology, art, ethics, philosophy, theology, and mysticism. Hence, these other levels of exploration and discourse have the right not to do science but to challenge the scientist, when a value known and embraced at another level is threatened by a science that is fundamentally without values. This is obviously the case in the life sciences: biotechnology, biochemistry, etc. Even if cloning, stem cell research, and reproductive advances represent scientific progress, are they truly and necessarily progress for the totality of the human person and for life in society? These are crucial questions that have to be faced out of respect for the complexity of our human and epistemological reality. But likewise, there must be caution on the other end of the spectrum: Are we so sure about our ethical and spiritual understanding of the human person that we would be justified in imposing limits on science in such and such a case? Humility and circumspection are needed on both sides.
Perhaps what is best in our humanity is what can likewise help reconcile science and religion in practice: the sense of wonder, of openness, of exploration, the exhilarating intoxication that I mentioned above. These sentiments are the inspiration, both Maritain and I would argue, for both science and religion—indeed for any passionate pursuit. Grounded in this sort of breadth of spirit, which is secure, serene, and confident in itself, we can hopefully learn—whether in science or in religion or in any human endeavor—not only to tolerate but to glory in the experience of not knowing. The feverish demand for instant certitude seems a Western neurosis. After all, whether we consider ourselves loyal scientists or loyal members of a religious tradition or both, an awestruck sense of respect before the unknown is the only loyal attitude towards whatever reality is the object of our exploration. As Maritain pointed out, there is more mystery in a grape between the teeth than in all of our discourses that would attempt to explain it. So, may we avoid anorexia of the spirit, and let the “banquet” continue!
The revolutionary figure is timeless. Of course, revolutionaries are firmly entrenched in their times, and their reforming ideas address specific issues. For Adam Bucko and Matthew Fox, the Occupy movement is just an instance of a revolution that is happening, and must happen, across the board: a dialogue of openness to the genuine needs and insights of the people. Jesus grappled with hardscrabble individuals and struggles throughout the Gospels, and popes in modern times, from Paul VI (Ecclesiam Suam) to Francis, have appealed for this sort of engagement.
In Occupy Spirituality, Bucko and Fox summon us to this dialogue, mirror it for us and remind us that it must address, above all, the “new generation.” As claimed in this book, fully 75 percent of youth between 18 and 29 consider themselves “spiritual but not religious.” There is a chapter here on the challenges and necessity of this intergenerational dialogue, and the entire book is a delightful practicing of what it preaches, in the form of a dialogue between Bucko, a 37-year-old activist, and Fox, a 72-year-old theologian. This makes for a rollicking ride, a pointed and energetic exchange in which love and mutual esteem is evident on every page. There is enough polish and elaboration in the presentation to convince the reader that the interplay was not simply caught on the fly, but this never detracts from the freshness and spontaneity of their sharing.
One of the most alluring features of the volume is its two autobiographical chapters, “Adam’s Story” and “Matt’s Story.” These maintain the dialogue format, as both men share the highlights of their vocational search, personal struggle and spiritual exploration. Matt’s story will be well-known to some, though I suspect many will be impressed by his descriptions of early contemplative experience, and his deeply affecting relationship with his mentor, Dominican Fr. Marie-Dominique Chenu. Adam’s story is moving and inspiring: growing up in communist Poland, where he was enflamed by the example of activist Catholic priests; seeking a spiritual path in India and encountering it in the disenfranchised; founding the Reciprocity Foundation to work in pioneering ways with homeless youth in New York City. Equally riveting are the candid and pithy autobiographical comments from young adults that open each chapter.
Sections on spirituality and vocation vividly bring to the forefront the pivotal role of the quest in which each person discovers his or her unique call to be a mystic and a prophet (to employ Fox’s pairing), sent by the God of life to be at the service of life.
Too often, though, as the authors note, these goals are not pursued, and are even opposed. Educational institutions are information factories, but do nothing to instill a deeper sense of life’s purpose. Even organizations dedicated to the homeless focus on jobs and housing, but do little to provide inspiration to make life worth living. As for the church, despite the centrality of prophecy and mysticism in the tradition, these themes are often downplayed or ignored. Seminaries seem more liable to turn out defenders of the institution than spiritual leaders with any mystical depth. Moreover, such persons have seldom done the psychological shadow work that the authors rightly note is essential on any authentic spiritual path.
The final chapter speaks of birthing a new economics, new communities and a new monasticism. Solutions are largely seen in local, self-sustaining groups, as opposed to global institutions. One may question the viability of such transformations on the economic level, but many exciting and encouraging examples are given of spiritual, intentional communities in the midst of today’s world. This reviewer believes these may represent the very future of monastic and religious life in our time. The book’s discussion of what the three religious vows might mean today is splendid.
The conclusion’s most startling feature is its texture of amazing quotes from Walt Whitman, who foresaw a central role for America in the planet’s spiritual evolution toward a “spiritual democracy.” The revolutionary is indeed timeless. Some readers may find themselves having a revolutionary reaction to this provocative book.
Not all will agree that traditional churches are “traveling down a path of death,” as Fox suggests. Yet this volume is a heartfelt and potent wake-up call for the churches to re-engage in the radical and revolutionary task that has been theirs from the outset: to produce prophets and mystics for the world. As Jesus, with his risky moral courage, poked at the religious and social institutions of his time, so, too, should his followers in the name of the wild dream we know as the kingdom of God.
Truth is paradoxical. In fact, the closer one dives into spiritual truth, or inner truth, the more paradoxical it becomes. The portals open to mystery and to the reconciliation of opposites.
This basic axiom is what Peter Abelard affirmed in the 12th century with his famous treatise “Sic et Non” (“Yes and No”), and what Richard Rohr claims in his new book, Yes, and … : Daily Meditations. Notice that Rohr’s title is not “Yes and No” or “Yes, but …,” two clichéd expressions open to misinterpretation. “Yes, and …” reminds us that both poles are “yes” dancing in a non-resolution (signified by the title’s ellipsis), which anticipates an ever-greater leap into a mystery that can never be adequately defined.
Rohr’s best observations are always aphoristic and incisive, reflecting not mere intellectual cleverness, but profound contemplative experience. In this volume, the “meat is nicely cut up into small pieces,” as David Benner remarks in the foreword. In fact, these brief meditations are more or less a collection of the daily email reflections that Rohr has been sending out to his subscribers over the past year. They are arranged under seven headings, with 52 meditations in each category, to offer nourishment every day of the year.
Rohr himself explains and justifies his hermeneutic in a short introduction, claiming with good reason that he is interpreting the Scriptures much as Jesus did himself. He notes, “Jesus consistently ignored or even denied exclusionary, punitive, and triumphalistic texts in his own Jewish Bible in favor of passages that emphasized inclusion, mercy, and honesty.”
The seven underlying themes all evoke, and build upon, the central insight that “everything belongs” (the fourth theme, and title of Rohr’s earlier book on contemplation). Plunging more deeply into their mysteries is not a spiritual luxury, as we quickly see, but a crucial challenge. Thus, the first theme cautions that experience is to be taken seriously, along with Scripture and tradition. This insight derails religion’s tendency to blind dogmatism or fundamentalism, the source of so much havoc today.
Stemming from and leading to this, the third theme boldly proclaims that there is only one seamless reality, the luminous Ladder of Being (as Medieval mystics/theologians called it), in which the distinction between natural and supernatural, sacred and profane, is exposed as ultimately and radically false. Theologians as diverse as Henri de Lubac, Karl Rahner and Hans Urs von Balthasar have all pointed out the problems with such dichotomies — and got into trouble for it. Nonetheless, insistence on such spiritual schizophrenia has wrought inestimable damage on many levels, and only a narrow clericalism has any interest in maintaining it.
However central the previous insight, an even more critical one is the fifth: “The separate self is the problem, whereas most religion and most people make the shadow self the problem. This leads to denial, pretending, and projecting, instead of real transformation into the divine.” Such clever diversion of attention perpetuates the reign of the ego: It feels superior by suppressing bodily passions, and meanwhile, in cruel isolation, seeks power, prestige and possessions, even within ecclesial life. As Rohr has noted, we have been “mortifying” the wrong thing for 2,000 years!
This brings us to the next startling realization: The way up is the way down. The sixth theme states: “Darkness, failure, relapse, death, and woundedness are our primary teachers, rather than ideas or doctrines.” Even this belongs! These are hard lessons, though many primitive initiation rites and contemporary addiction recovery programs have proven to understand it well. How could we, who worship a tortured man on a cross, miss this? The ego managed to turn even this icon into atonement and satisfaction theories.
So, if death is life, darkness light, and weakness strength, then the ultimate truth (and Rohr’s seventh theme) is: “Reality is paradoxical and complementary. Non-dual thinking is the highest level of consciousness. Divine union, not private perfection, is the goal of all religion.” This leads us full circle to the title of the current volume: Yes, and …
Rohr’s pungent insights are a bitter and soothing balm for our wounded souls and world. That they seem so strange, shocking and counterintuitive only proves how poorly we have understood our own tradition, and grievously deformed it. The loss of this contemplative eye, he suggests, is what created wars of religion, whereas “non-duality” is recognized more and more as the meeting point of all traditions. Whether we, and religion, can survive depends on our finally getting the message right.